Whether the injury is recent or has occurred several years ago, stem cell transplants will gradually restore the functions that have been lost after the injury.
It has long been thought that damaged neurons cannot be replaced. Recent studies showed that our brain has a special area that produces neural stem cells which are in charge of replacing these damaged mature neurons. At the time of the injury, these neural stem cells are produced to stop the bleeding and trigger the repair but their production is quickly stopped once the repair is started and the recovery is rarely completed by these host stem cells.
By providing Embryonic Stem cells to the patients, the brain repair mechanism starts over again. Some believe that the external stem cells produce specific growth factors that enhance the production of the host's neural stem cells. Scientists from USF in Florida recently showed that the transplanted stem cells create a bio-bridge that links the neural stem cell niche to the area of injury.
Whichever mechanism is involved, what we observed is an incremental recovery of the brain functions leading to a recovery of the lost body functions.
The best results are observed after 3 injections of embryonic stem cells given every 7 to 10 days. After 2 months, depending on the progress, another course of 3 injections may be recommended.